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We are now going to look at adult CPR. Now, adult CPR procedures are the same for healthcare professionals as they are for standard first aid. So the first thing we need to do is make sure that the scene is safe. So to start with, stop, think, act. Ensure the scene is safe. Now, for point of demonstration here, I have put the manikin on a table, so that it is easier to show you the exact skills. But when you actually practice, you may well do this on the floor, or being on the table is very similar to that in a hospital where you will have a bed. Often near the beds, you would have a CPR adjustment for it, so you can just literally hit a button or put a board in. Because if you do CPR on a conventional bed, then it is going to be a problem, because you are not going to be able to get the depth of compression, because of the springs in the mattress.

So once we have established that the scene is safe, we now need to see if we can get a response from the person. Now, at any point in time, you can shout for help. But we do need to find out exactly what is wrong. And if you are in an out of hospital setting, we need to find out if the person's not breathing before we then activate the emergency services. So approach them. As you approach, you can introduce yourself. "Hi, my name is Keith. I am a first aider. May I help you?" Also, you want to get a direct response from them. Give them a little tap on the collarbone, "Hi, are you okay? Can I help you?" If you got no response there, then you can have implied consent to help them, so it is okay to go straight away and help them.

So what you can then do is open the airway using the head tilt-chin lift. So hand on the forehead and on the bony part of the chin, tilt the head back. What we are doing here is we are opening up the airway to ensure that if the person is breathing we can hear and it will clear away the tongue from the back of the throat. Then we want to put our ear down and we are doing a breathing check where we look, listen and feel for 10 seconds. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10. Now, at that point, 10 seconds have passed, we know the person is not breathing. If we were on our own, we must now activate the emergency services. So, on your mobile phone, 999 or 112. You can put it on speaker phone so you can continue with the CPR. While you are on the phone, you can be doing compressions. So you are actually giving care while the person is on the phone. But if there is someone else there, you can send them to go and get help and call the emergency services. And also ask them, if there is one available, to bring an AED over.

So once we have done the breathing check, the next thing we need to do is the compressions. So we are using the heel of the hand, interlock the fingers, bring the fingers up, and we are pushing this part down onto the centre of the breastbone. So, link the hands up, bring the fingers away, because we do not want to be pushing down onto the chest cavity, we want to ensure that these compressions are effective. So in other videos, we show about effective CPR, and this is really about ensuring that your whole weight is above. You deliver the compression down and the release, because it is so important to make sure you release the compressions, because if the heart does not fill back up with blood, then you are going to get problems that when you do the next compression, you are only pushing out maybe half of the amount of blood.

So with the compressions, we are pushing down 5 to 6 centimetres, and we are doing that at a rate of 100 to 120 compressions a minute, which is roughly two compressions every second. So, this will look like this. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30. Once we have done those 30 compressions, we then come back up, we can open up the airway and we need to squeeze the nose, to seal the nose, otherwise, you are going to blow into the mouth and the air will come straight out the nose. Ensure we keep that airway open. Do not go letting go here, because the jaw will just drop down and block the airway again.

So squeeze the nose, tilt the head back and two breaths. We give two breaths until we see the chest rise and we do not want to over-inflate. So it is just literally those breaths until you see the chest rise. Once we deliver the two breaths, straight back over and do another 30 compressions.

And then back up, another two breaths, and then we carry on 30, 2, 30, 2, 30, 2, and we carry that on until help arrives, until the AED arrives, when we pop the AED on and run through the voice prompts, or until someone else is there to help. And it is a good idea if you swap over every two minutes, because you will get tired, and as you get tired, your CPR becomes less efficient.

And finally, in this video, we have shown you how to do direct mouth to mouth resuscitation. Remember, you can use face shields, pocket masks or BVMs to deliver the breaths.