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Now what we are going to look at now is chest-only compressions CPR. This would be if you are unable to or unwilling to do the breaths. If you did not have PPE, if there was a lot of vomit there or facial injury where you were not able to deliver the breaths, what we would need to do then is just to deliver the compressions. Now, the theory here is if you are delivering the compressions, there is lots of trapped oxygen in the bloodstream, so that will still circulate the oxygen around. And also by pushing down on the chest, you will force a little bit of air out of the lungs and then when you release, a little bit of air will be sucked in. Because you are doing this at a rate of 100 to 120 times a minute, there will be an element of airflow inside the lungs, so this will be good enough to sustain life.

All we are doing with this is exactly the same: We are checking the scene safety, we are introducing ourselves and we tap the same, we still open the airway the same. But once we found out that they are not breathing, rather than running through the whole compression and breath side, we just do the compressions, still at 5 to 6 centimetres in depth, at 100 to 120 compressions a minute. To deliver this, once you found out they are definitely not breathing then and you have called help or called the emergency services, then we need to interlock the hands, push down the chest exactly the same way. But this time, we are just compressing, we are not doing anything else as far as the breath is concerned.

When you are doing the compressions, you do not need to count out necessarily loud on there because you are doing it at the same rate. You can talk. If you were doing continual chest compressions, you could be giving instructions to somebody, you could have your phone on speaker phone or you could be talking to emergency services, you can be directing bystanders. Or because these compressions in CPR is still hard work, in an ideal world, you are going to hand over to a second rescuer every couple of minutes. While they are doing those compressions, you can still be talking, giving clear instructions to them and telling them when to hand over. And then, they can carry on and do compressions while you have a rest and you can swap back to keep the cycle going.